Employment in the formal sector has fallen since 1997. More and more people are being pushed into either lowest-end self-employment; or the most unprotected and casualised wage employment.
Villagers working at pond construction project under a NREGA at Niredh village in Latehar district. The seismic distress created by demonetisation is likely to result in a continuing surge for wage work in NREGA.
The people of India’s villages carry collective memories of centuries of calamitous losses of sometimes millions of lives in famines. Famines have been pushed into history, unarguably one of free India’s greatest accomplishments.